Document Type

White Paper

Publication Date


Music and Health Institute Terms

Hospital Setting; Infants; Music Listening; Music Therapy; Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS); Newborn Infants; Receptive Music Methods; Recorded Music Listening; Substance Abuse and Addiction; Symptom Management


Over a quarter of a million infants each year are born with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). There is a trend for treatment of NAS to move away from pharmaceutical to non-pharmaceutical interventions to manage symptoms. This paper describes the treatment model called Rhythm, Breath, Lullaby: First Sounds (RBL).