The Effects of Music Intervention on Women’s Anxiety Before and After Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial


Music and Medicine




Objective: To assess effect of perioperative music intervention on maternal anxiety levels, physiologic metrics, and medication use for anxiety, nausea and pain during and after scheduled cesarean section. Methods: Women assigned to music intervention group were compared against controls. Physiologic metrics, medication requirements, and STAI scores were assessed for all participants. Results: 50 women were enrolled, assigned to either music intervention (n=25) or control (n=25) and analyzed. Physiologic metrics were similar between groups. Antiemetic, anxiolytic, and analgesic medication use intraoperatively and postoperatively were not significantly different. State and Trait scores by the STAI did not vary significantly by intervention (p=0.09). STAI scores before and after procedure demonstrated the least change for the intervention group (r=0.6) when compared to controls (r=0.2; p<0.05). Conclusion: Contrary to studies with formal music therapy, our data do not support use of patient-selected music as an intervention to reduce maternal anxiety or need for analgesics, anxiolytics, or antiemetics with scheduled cesarean section.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Analgesic Intake; Anti-Anxiety Medication Intake; Anxiety; Gender Disparities; Medication Use; Pain; Receptive Music Methods; Surgical Patients

Indexed Terms

Cesarean section; Intervention; Comparative analysis; Anxiety

Study Type

Randomized Controlled; Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type


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