The Effects of Music Entrainment on Postoperative Pain Perception in Pediatric Patients


Joke Bradt


Music and Medicine




Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design with random allocation to treatment sequences, this study examined the effects of music entrainment on postoperative pain perception and emotional state in 32 pediatric patients. Patients participated in two music entrainment conditions and one control condition over 2 consecutive days. During the music entrainment condition, live music was created by the music therapist to match the child's pain. Once resonance was achieved between the pain and the music, the music progressed into music predetermined by the child as healing. During the control condition, standard care was provided. Measurements of the dependent variables were taken just prior to and immediately following each condition. The results support the effectiveness of music entrainment as a postoperative pain management technique for children and adolescents. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Music and Health Institute Terms

Adolescents; Children; Emotional Functioning; Hospital Setting; Hospitalized Patients; Mood Scales; Music Entrainment; Music Therapy; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Postoperative Pain; Postoperative Patients; Receptive Music Methods; Self-Report Measures; Surgery; Surgical Patients

Indexed Terms

Pain; Children & youth; Emotions; Perception

Study Type

Quasi-Experimental Study; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type