Update on Nonpharmacologic Approaches to Relieve Labor Pain and Prevent Suffering


Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health




The control of labor pain and prevention of suffering are major concerns of clinicians and their clients. Nonpharmacologic approaches toward these goals are consistent with midwifery management and the choices of many women. We undertook a literature search of scientific articles cataloged in CINAHL, PUBMED, the Cochrane Library, and AMED databases relating to the effectiveness of 13 non-pharmacologic methods used to relieve pain and reduce suffering in labor. Suffering, which is different from pain, is not an outcome that is usually measured after childbirth. We assumed that suffering is unlikely if indicators of satisfaction were positive after childbirth. Adequate evidence of benefit in reducing pain exists for continuous labor support, baths, intradermal water blocks, and maternal movement and positioning. Acupuncture, massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and hypnosis are promising, but they require further study. The effectiveness of childbirth education, relaxation and breathing, heat and cold, acupressure, hypnosis, aromatherapy, music, and audioanalgesia are either inadequately studied or findings are too variable to draw conclusions on effectiveness. All the methods studied had evidence of widespread satisfaction among a majority of users.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Childbirth; Hospital Setting; Hospitalized Patients; Labor Pain; Music Listening; Music and Medicine; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pregnancy; Recorded Music Listening; Suffering

Indexed Terms

Acupuncture Analgesia; Analgesia, Obstetrical; Aromatherapy; Baths; Complementary Therapies; Hypnosis; Labor, Obstetric; Midwifery; Nurse's Role; Nurse-Patient Relations; Nursing Methodology Research; Obstetric Labor Complications; Pain; Pregnancy; Relaxation Therapy; Stress; Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation

Study Type

Systematic Review; Quantitative Methods

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