School-aged Children's Experiences of Postoperative Music Medicine on Pain, Distress, and Anxiety


Paediatric Anaesthesia




AIM: To test whether postoperative music listening reduces morphine consumption and influence pain, distress, and anxiety after day surgery and to describe the experience of postoperative music listening in school-aged children who had undergone day surgery. BACKGROUND: Music medicine has been proposed to reduce distress, anxiety, and pain. There has been no other study that evaluates effects of music medicine (MusiCure) in children after minor surgery. METHODS: Numbers of participants who required analgesics, individual doses, objective pain scores (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability [FLACC]), vital signs, and administration of anti-emetics were documented during postoperative recovery stay. Self-reported pain (Coloured Analogue Scale [CAS]), distress (Facial Affective Scale [FAS]), and anxiety (short State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]) were recorded before and after surgery. In conjunction with the completed intervention semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. RESULTS: Data were recorded from 80 children aged 7-16. Forty participants were randomized to music medicine and another 40 participants to a control group. We found evidence that children in the music group received less morphine in the postoperative care unit, 1/40 compared to 9/40 in the control group. Children's individual FAS scores were reduced but no other significant differences between the two groups concerning FAS, CAS, FLACC, short STAI, and vital signs were shown. Children experienced the music as 'calming and relaxing.' CONCLUSIONS: Music medicine reduced the requirement of morphine and decreased the distress after minor surgery but did not else influence the postoperative care.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Adolescents; Analgesic Intake; Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Children; Distress; Hospital Setting; Medication Use; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Nausea; Opioid Intake; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Postoperative Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Surgery; Vital signs

Indexed Terms

Adolescents; Ambulatory Surgical Procedures; Opioid Analgesics; Anxiety; Children; Clinical Protocols; Morphine; Postoperative Pain; Stress; Time Factors

Study Type

Mixed Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type