Music Therapy to Reduce Pain and Anxiety in Children With Cancer Undergoing Lumbar Puncture: A Randomized Clinical Trial


Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing




A nonpharmacological method can be an alternative or complement to analgesics.The aim of this study was to evaluate if music medicine influences pain and anxiety in children undergoing lumbar punctures. A randomized clinical trial was used in 40 children (aged 7-12 years) with leukemia, followed by interviews in 20 of these participants. The participants were randomly assigned to a music group (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The primary outcome was pain scores and the secondary was heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation measured before, during, and after the procedure. Anxiety scores were measured before and after the procedure. Interviews with open-ended questions were conducted in conjunction with the completed procedures. The results showed lower pain scores and heart and respiratory rates in the music group during and after the lumbar puncture. The anxiety scores were lower in the music group both before and after the procedure. The findings from the interviews confirmed the quantity results through descriptions of a positive experience by the children, including less pain and fear.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Blood Pressure; Cancer; Children; Fear; Heart Rate; Hospital Setting; Hospitalized Patients; Interviews; Invasive Medical Procedures; Leukemia; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Oxygen Saturation; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Patient Satisfaction; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Respiratory Rate; Self-Report Measures; Vital signs

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; Attitude to Health; Children; Child, Hospitalized; Fear; Leukemia; Nursing Methodology Research; Pain; Pain Measurement; Qualitative Research; Severity of Illness Index; Spinal Puncture; Surveys and Questionnaires; Vietnam; Vital Signs

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type