Breast Biopsy: The Effects of Hypnosis and Music


The international Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis




The authors evaluated the efficacies of audio-recorded hypnosis with background music and music without hypnosis in the reduction of emotional and physical disturbances in patients scheduled for breast biopsy in comparison with a control group. A total of 75 patients were randomly assigned to 3 different groups and evaluated at baseline and before and after breast biopsy using visual analog scales of stress, pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, optimism, and general well-being. The results showed that, before breast biopsy, the music group presented less stress and anxiety, whereas the hypnosis with music group presented reduced stress, anxiety, and depression and increased optimism and general well-being. After the biopsy, the music group presented less anxiety and pain, whereas the hypnosis group showed less anxiety and increased optimism.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Breast Cancer; Cancer; Depression; Fatigue; Invasive Medical Procedures; Mental Health; Mood; Mood Scales; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Music and Relaxation; Music in Combination with Other Techniques; Pain; Pain Score or Rating; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Stress; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Wellness and Well-Being

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; Biopsy; Breast; Combined Modality Therapy; Depression; Hypnosis; Pain; Pain Management; Stress

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type