Comparison of Two Different Distraction Methods Affecting the Level of Pain and Anxiety During Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial


Pain Management Nursing




BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can cause pain and anxiety for patients. Despite the use of many distraction methods to reduce pain and anxiety, there is no study on the use of stress balls during lithotripsy. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of use of stress balls and music therapy to reduce pain and anxiety during lithotripsy. DESIGN: This was a single-center, parallel randomized controlled trial. SETTINGS: The study involved the lithotripsy unit in a training and research hospital in Turkey. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 120 patients who had kidney or ureter stones. METHODS: The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (group 1) received no interference, whereas experimental groups received stress ball (group 2) and music (group 3) interventions during lithotripsy, respectively. Data were collected using the Patient Information Form, visual analog scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference among the three groups in regard to anxiety and pain mean scores (p > .05). No statistically significant difference was found between anxiety scores before and after lithotripsy in each group (p > .05), whereas there was a statistically significant difference between pain scores during and after lithotripsy (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Based on the present study, no statistically significant difference was found between the use of stress balls and music in reducing pain and anxiety during lithotripsy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of stress balls used during lithotripsy.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Hospital Setting; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Music as Distraction; Noninvasive Procedures; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

Indexed Terms

Adolescents; Anxiety; Lithotripsy; Nursing Process; Pain Measurement; Procedural Pain; Physical Therapy Modalities

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

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