Does Listening to Music During Office-based Flexible Cystoscopy Decrease Anxiety in Patients: A Prospective Randomized Trial


Journal of Endourology




PURPOSE: To validate the effect of listening to music on perceived anxiety and pain during office-based flexible cystoscopy using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), in a well-matched North American veteran patient population in a prospective, randomized fashion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 137 veteran patients receiving routine urologic care in a North American Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system were recruited over a 2-year period (June 2011 to June 2013). All patients were prospectively randomized to undergo office-based flexible cystoscopy with or without music. The music group consisted of 73 patients who listened to the same excerpt of classical music at the time of flexible cystoscopy; the nonmusic group consisted of 64 patients. RESULTS: The median postprocedural STAI anxiety scores between the music and nonmusic groups were statistically significantly different: 30 (range 23-39) and 35 (range 28-49), respectively (P=0.0017). The median postprocedural pain VAS score between the music and nonmusic groups reached statistical significance: 0 (range 0-1) and 2 (range 1-2), respectively (P<0.0001). The median delta STAI anxiety score was statistically significantly different between the music and nonmusic groups: 0 (range -3-0) and 2 (range 0-4), respectively (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that listening to music decreases anxiety and pain associated with flexible cystoscopy in a North American VA patient population. We recommend incorporating music as an effective adjunct to other maneuvers used at the time of flexible cystoscopy to reduce anxiety and pain.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Invasive Medical Procedures; Medical Office; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

Indexed Terms

Elderly; Anxiety; Cystoscopy; Pain; Pain Measurement; Prospective Studies; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Veterans

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

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