Listening to Music During Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Prostate Biopsy Decreases Anxiety, Pain and Dissatisfaction in Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial


Urologia Internationalis




OBJECTIVE: To determine whether listening to music during transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided 12-core needle prostate biopsy decreases anxiety, pain and dissatisfaction among patients and results in a more comfortable and better tolerated procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 76 male patients who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy between March 2013 and June 2014 were randomized into the following groups: no music (group I, n = 38) or classical music (group II, n = 38) during the procedure. Before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, lidocaine gel was instilled into the rectum. Patient anxiety levels were quantified using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A visual analog scale (0-10) was used for self-assessment of satisfaction, discomfort and willingness among patients to have a repeat TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. RESULTS: Demographic characteristics, mean age, procedure duration and procedure indications did not differ statistically between the two groups. The mean anxiety level and mean pain score of group II were significantly lower than those of group I (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). Group II also had a significantly higher mean satisfaction score than group I (p = 0.007). Before the procedure, heart rate and systolic blood pressure were similar in groups I and II; however, after the procedure, levels were lower in group II than in group I (heart rate, p = 0.014; systolic blood pressure, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Listening to music during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy significantly reduced patients' feelings of pain, discomfort and dissatisfaction. Music can serve as a simple, inexpensive and effective adjunct to sedation during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. We recommend playing music during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Invasive Medical Procedures; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Patient Satisfaction; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Vital signs; Willingness to Undergo Procedure

Indexed Terms

Elderly; Anxiety; Biopsy; Biopsy, Needle; Lidocaine; Pain; Pain Measurement; Patient Satisfaction; Pilot Projects; Prostate; Rectum; Ultrasonography; Visual Analog Scale

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

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