Pain Control Interventions in Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial


Indian Pediatrics




OBJECTIVE: To compare individual efficacy and additive effects of pain control interventions in preterm neonates. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Level-3 University affiliated neonatal intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS: 200 neonates (26-36 wk gestational age) requiring heel-prick for bedside glucose assessment. Exclusion criteria were neurologic impairment and critical illness precluding study interventions. INTERVENTION: Neonates were randomly assigned to Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy, Music therapy, Kangaroo Mother care or Control (no additional intervention) groups. All groups received expressed breast milk with cup and spoon as a baseline pain control intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessment of pain using Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score on recorded videos. RESULTS: The mean (SD) birth weight and gestational age of the neonates was 1.9 (0.3) kg and 34 (2.3) wk, respectively. Analysis of variance showed significant difference in total PIPP score across groups (P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons using Sheffe's test revealed that the mean (SD) total PIPP score was significantly lower in Kangaroo mother care group [7.7 (3.9) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95% CI(-5.9, -1.7), P<0.001] as well as Kangaroo mother care with Music therapy group [8.5 (3.2) vs. 11.5 (3.4), 95%CI (-5.1, -0.9), P=0.001] as compared to Control group. PIPP score was not significantly different between Control group and Music therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Kangaroo mother care with and without Music therapy (with expressed breast milk) significantly reduces pain on heel-prick as compared to expressed breast milk alone. Kangaroo mother care with expressed breast milk should be the first choice as a method for pain control in preterm neonates.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Hospital Setting; Infants; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Music in Combination with Other Techniques; Neonatal Intensive Care; Neonatal Procedures; Newborn Infants; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Premature Infants; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening

Indexed Terms

Blood Specimen Collection; Follow-Up Studies; Newborn Infants; Premature Infants; Kangaroo-Mother Care Method; Milk, Human; Pain Management; Pain Measurement; Procedural Pain; Single-Blind Method

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type