Perioperative Music May Reduce Pain and Fatigue in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy


Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica




BACKGROUND: Acute post-operative pain is a predictor in the development of chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Music has been shown to reduce surgical stress. In a randomized, clinical trial, we wanted to test the hypothesis that perioperative and post-operative soft music reduces pain, nausea, fatigue and surgical stress in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy as day surgery. METHOD: The study was performed in otherwise healthy Danish patients eligible for day surgery. Ninety-three patients were included and randomized to either soft music or no music perioperatively and post-operatively. Using visual analog score pain, nausea and fatigue at baseline, 1 h, 3 h, 1 day and 7 days after surgery were recorded. C-reactive protein and cortisol were sampled before and after surgery. RESULTS: Music did not lower pain 3 h after surgery, which was the main outcome. The music group had less pain day 7 (P = 0.014). Nausea was low in both groups and was not affected by music. The music group experienced less fatigue at day 1 (P = 0.042) and day 7 (P = 0.015). Cortisol levels decreased during surgery in the music group (428.5-348.0 nmol/l), while it increased in the non-music group (443.5-512.0 nmol/l); still, the difference between the two groups were only significant using general linear models as post-hoc analysis. Soft music did not affect C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Soft music did not reduce pain 3 h after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Soft music may reduce later post-operative pain and fatigue by decreasing the surgical stress response.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Abdominal Surgery; Cortisol Levels; Fatigue; Hospital Setting; Hospitalized Patients; Mental Health; Mental Health Hormone Levels; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Nausea; Pain; Pain Managment and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Postoperative Pain; Postoperative Patients; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Stress; Surgery; Surgical Patients; Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

Indexed Terms

Elderly; Anesthesia; C-Reactive Protein; Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic; Early Ambulation; Fatigue; Hydrocortisone; Pain Measurement; Postoperative Pain; Perioperative Care; Postoperative Complications; Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting; Sample Size; Stress, Physiological

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type