The Effect of Listening to Music During Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube Placement on Pain, Anxiety, and Success Rate of Procedure: A Randomized Prospective Study


Journal of Endourology




PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of listening to music on pain, anxiety, and success of procedure during office-based percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement (PNTP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients (age >18 years) with hydronephrosis were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were prospectively randomized to undergo office-based PNTP with (Group I, n = 50) or without music (Group II, n = 50). Anxiety levels were evaluated with State Trait Anxiety Inventory. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain levels, patient's satisfaction, and willingness to undergo the procedure. We also compared success rates of procedures. RESULTS: The mean age, duration of procedure, and gender distribution were statistically similar between the two groups. The mean postprocedural heart rates and systolic blood pressures in Group I patients were significantly lower than Group II patients (p = 0.01 and p = 0.028, respectively), whereas preprocedural pulse rate and systolic blood pressure were similar. The mean anxiety level and mean pain score of Group I were significantly lower than those of Group II (p = 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively). Group I also carried a significant greater mean satisfaction score and willingness to undergo repeat procedure compared with Group II (p < 0.001 for both). Success rate of nephrostomy tube placement in Group I was significantly higher compared with Group II (92% vs 66%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The present randomized prospective study demonstrates that listening to music during office-based PNTP decreases anxiety or pain and increases success rate of procedure. As an alternative to sedation or general anesthesia, music is easily accessible without side effect and cost.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Invasive Medical Procedures; Medical Office; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Patient Satisfaction; Procedural Pain; Pulse Rate; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Success of Procedure; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Vital signs; Willingness to Undergo Procedure

Indexed Terms

Elderly; Anesthesia; Anxiety; Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Hydronephrosis; Nephrotomy; Pain; Pain Measurement; Patient Satisfaction; Prospective Studies; anxiety; discomfort; pain; percutaneous nephrostomy

Study Type

Quasi-Experimental Study; Quantitative Methods

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