Use of Music to Reduce Anxiety During Office Hysteroscopy: Prospective Randomized Trial


Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology




STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of music on anxiety and perception of pain during office hysteroscopy. DESIGN: Prospective randomized trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). SETTING: Major university medical center. INTERVENTIONS: Three hundred fifty-six patients were enrolled between July 2012 and January 2013. Hysteroscopy was performed in a dedicated ambulatory room, using vaginoscopy and without any type of anesthesia. A Bettocchi hysteroscope 5 mm in diameter was used. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon, a gynecologist with special interest in hysteroscopy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data collected included age, body mass index, number of vaginal deliveries, educational achievement level, and history of endometrial surgery (curettage and/or hysteroscopy). For each patient, vital parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded 15 minutes before the procedure and during hysteroscopy after traversing the cervix. Wait time before surgery and the duration of the procedure were also recorded. A completed Italian version of the state anxiety questionnaire (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and a visual analog scale (VAS) were administered to each patient before and after the procedure. The t test and Mann-Whitney U test was used when appropriate to compare the 2 groups. Statistical significance was accepted at p = .05. During surgery, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in the music group compared with the no music group. Women in the music group experienced significantly lower anxiety after hysteroscopy and less pain during the procedure, and a significant decrease in both anxiety and pain scores after hysteroscopy. Postoperative State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y1 and VAS scores were significantly lower in the music group. CONCLUSION: Music can be useful as a complementary method to control anxiety and reduce perception of pain. The patient is more relaxed and experiences less discomfort.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Blood Pressure; Discomfort; Heart Rate; Invasive Medical Procedures; Medical Office; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Obstetrical/Gynecological Surgery; Pain; Pain Score or Rating; Postoperative Pain; Postoperative Patients; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Relaxation; Respiratory Rate; Self-Report Measures; Surgery; Surgical Patients; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Vital signs

Indexed Terms

Elderly; Anxiety; Cervix Uteri; Hysteroscopes; Hysteroscopy; Pain; Pain Measurement; Pregnancy; Prospective Studies; Surveys and Questionnaires; Anxiety; Office hysteroscopy; Pain; Stai; Vas

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type