Effects of Music and Relaxation Suggestions on Experimental Pain


The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis




Pain is a significant public healthcare challenge. There is growing support for the use of music and suggestive techniques as adjuvant pain treatments. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the effects of music listening combined with relaxation suggestions compared to music alone and silence on experimental pain, and (2) to explore the potential mechanisms of music-induced analgesia. Sixty-six healthy females were randomized to receive either (1) music plus relaxation suggestions, (2) music alone, or (3) silence. Pain and psychological constructs were assessed following two cold-pressor trials. Between-group comparisons indicated that music and suggestions for relaxation are not superior to music alone for pain. More research is needed to explore the effect of analgesic suggestions in combination with music to further investigate music's potential in clinical pain management.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Experimentally Induced Pain; Gender Disparities; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Music in Combination with Other Techniques; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Psychological Outcomes; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures

Indexed Terms

Pain; Pain Management; Relaxation Therapy; Suggestion

Study Type

Quantitative Methods; Randomized Controlled Trial

PubMed ID


Document Type