Listening to Music during Outpatient Cystoscopy Reduces Pain and Anxiety and Increases Satisfaction: Results from a Prospective Randomized Study


Urologia Internationalis




BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effect of classical music, music of patients' own choice, or no music on pain reduction during elective cystoscopy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe the effect of listening to classical music, music of patients' own choice, or no music on patient's pain and satisfaction rates when carrying out an elective cystoscopy and the effect on the assessment capability of the performing urologist. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This randomized trial included 127 patients undergoing elective cystoscopy at the Urological Department of the University Clinic of Munich between June 2019 and March 2020. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis: Patients were assigned randomly to 3 groups: group I: listening to standardized classical music (n = 35), group II: listening to music according to the patients' choice (n = 34), and control group III: no music (n = 44). Prior to cystoscopy, anxiety levels were assessed by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The Visual Analog Scale (VAS, range 1-100) was used for a self-assessment of pain, discomfort, and satisfaction. Statistical analysis was done with Spearman's rank correlation and t-tests. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median age was 63 (range 27-91) years. The duration of cystoscopy was 5.7 (1-30) min. Patients had undergone a median of 2.3 cystoscopies in the past. Between giving informed consent and cystoscopy, patients had to wait for a median of 64 (0-260) min. The median VAS pain score was significantly lower in group I at 1.7 and group II at 2.3 versus 5.2 in the control group III (p < 0.001). The control group III had significantly worse pain and patient satisfaction rates compared with groups I and II. Group I had a significant lower VAS pain score than groups II and III (p < 0.001). Classical music also increased the assessment capability of the preforming urologist. CONCLUSIONS: Listening to music during elective cystoscopy significantly reduces pain and distress and leads to higher patient and surgeon satisfaction. We recommend listening to classical music or music chosen by the patients during outpatient flexible/rigid cystoscopy in daily clinical routine. Patient Summary: In this study, we found that patients who listened to classical music or music of their own choice while undergoing a cystoscopy showed significant reduction of pain and distress.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Pain; Procedural Pain; Pain Management and Control; Anxiety; Postoperative Pain; Surgery; Discomfort; Patient Satisfaction; Sirgical Patients; Anxiety Scales; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Music Medicine; Music Listening; Recorded Music Listening

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; Pain; Prospective Studies; Pain Measurement; Elderly; Elderly; Time Factors; Cystoscopy; Ambulatory Care; Attitude of Health Personnel; Classical music; Germany; Pain reduction; Patient Satisfaction; Urological surgical procedures; Urologists

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID

PMID: 34280934

Document Type