Effects of Turkish Classical Music on Postpartum Pain and Anxiety in Cesarean Deliveries: A Randomized Controlled Trial


Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine




CONTEXT: In recent years, delivery via cesarean section (C-section) has been one of the most frequent, major surgical interventions in the world. Reducing post-cesarean delivery-related pain and good pain management are important as is reducing mothers' anxiety. OBJECTIVE: The study intended to determine the effects of music therapy on levels of postpartum pain and anxiety in women who delivered via cesarean section. DESIGN: The randomized controlled trial was conducted with power analysis for a type-I error rate of α:0.05, type-II error rate of β:0.20, representative power of 0.80, and effect size of 0.62. SETTING: The study took place at a tertiary hospital in a provincial center in Turkey. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 126 women who were hospitalized at the hospital between February 2018 and October 2018 and who delivered via C-section. INTERVENTION: The participants were allocated to three groups with 42 women each. Intervention groups 1 and 2 listened to music once a day and twice a day, respectively, whereas the control group was given routine care for 2 consecutive days. OUTCOME MEASURES: A visual analog scale (VAS) on pain and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI TX-1) were used to collect the data. RESULTS: The anxiety scores and pain levels were reduced in the intervention groups in comparison to the control group (P < .001). The anxiety scores weren't significantly different between the 2 intervention groups (P > .05), and the pain levels on the second day in intervention group 2 were lower than those of intervention group 1 (P < .05). While the pain levels were reduced in all groups (P < .001), the anxiety scores increased in the control group on the second day (P < .05) and decreased in the 2 intervention groups (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Music therapy can play an effective role in reducing pain and anxiety levels.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Pain; Postoperative Pain; Postpartum Pain; Pregnancy; Surgery; Obstetrical/Gynecological Surgery; Anxiety; Pain Management and Control; Anxiety Scales; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Hospitalized Patients; Surgical Patients; Postoperative Patients; Hospital Setting; Music Medicine; Music Listening; Recorded Music Listening

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; Pain; Pregnancy; Cesarean Section; Postpartum Period; Turkey

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID

PMID: 33245708

Document Type


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