Strategies for Implementing Music-based Interventions for People With Dementia in Long-term Care Facilities: A Systematic Review


International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry




OBJECTIVES: Research has found that music-based interventions can decrease behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia or behaviors that challenge (BPSD/BtC). However, how to effectively implement these interventions is unclear. This study synthesizes available evidence regarding implementation strategies and outcomes of music-based interventions for people with dementia at residential long-term care facilities. METHODS: Study registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020194354). We searched the following databases: PsychInfo, PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria included articles targeting music-based interventions conducted for people with dementia, studies conducted in residential long-term care facilities, and articles that reported implementation strategies and outcomes of the intervention. RESULTS: Of the included eight studies, half were studies of music therapy and the other half were on individualized music. 49 implementation strategies were reported. The most frequently reported category of strategies was planning (34.7%), followed by education (24.5%), quality management (24.5%), restructuring (12.2%), and finance (4.1%). No strategies under the category of attending to the policy context were reported. The most frequently reported implementation outcomes were appropriateness (27.3%), followed by adoption (22.7%), fidelity (22.7%), acceptability (9.1%), sustainability (9.1%), and cost (9.1%). No studies measured feasibility or penetration. CONCLUSIONS: Although various effective implementation strategies were identified, we were unable to examine the effectiveness of individual implementation strategies due to the designs of the selected studies. Less attention has been paid to strategies that aim at structural changes of intervention delivery systems. Future studies should investigate facilitators and barriers of implementing music-based interventions especially focusing on structural aspects.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Alzheimer's and Related Dementias; Long-Term Care Facility; Music Therapy; Neurodegenerative Disorders

Indexed Terms

Dementia; Long-Term Care; Skilled Nursing Facilities; dementia; implementation outcome; implementation strategy; individualized music; long-term care facility

Study Type

Systematic Review; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type