Efficacy of Listening to Music on Pain Reduction during Colposcopy-Directed Cervical Biopsy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial


Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)




Background and Objective: To investigate the efficacy of listening to music on pain reduction during colposcopy-directed cervical biopsy (CDB). Materials and Methods: From June 2020 to November 2021, 240 women undergoing CDB were enrolled. The participants were randomized into three groups: Group 1, colposcopic examination while wearing headphones and listening to music; Group 2, colposcopy while wearing headphones but not listening to music; Group 3 (control group), colposcopy while neither listening to music nor wearing headphones. All participating women completed a 10 cm visual analog scale for subjective pain at three time points: baseline, immediately after cervical biopsy, and 15 min after the procedure. The primary endpoint was the biopsy pain score. Result: Of the 240 women, a sample size of 80 was randomly assigned per group. The clinical-pathological and procedure-related characteristics of the participants in all groups were similar. The mean baseline pain score between each group was not significantly different (2.83 in the music group, 2.54 in group 2, and 2.94 in the control group, p = 0.47). There were no significant differences between each group in terms of mean biopsy pain score (4.21 in the music group, 4.24 in group 2, and 4.30 in the control group, p = 0.98). The differences in changes between the baseline pain score and the biopsy pain score were not statistically significant (1.39 in the music group, 1.70 in group 2, and 1.36 in the control group, p = 0.69). In the multiple comparison analysis, the differences in changes between the biopsy pain score and the baseline pain score between each group were also not statistically significant. There were no complications with the intervention observed. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there was no beneficial effect of listening to music on pain reduction during colposcopy-directed cervical biopsies.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Pain; Pain Management and Control; Procedural Pain; Invasive Medical Procedures; Anxiety; Patient Satisfaction; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Hospital Setting; Music Medicine; Music Listening; Recorded Music Listening

Indexed Terms

Pain; Biopsy; cervical biopsy; colposcopy; Colposcopy; pain relief

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID

PMID: 35334605 PMCID: PMC8955114

Document Type