Impact of music therapy and hand massage in the pediatric intensive care unit on pain, fear and stress: Randomized controlled trial


Journal of Pediatric Nursing




PURPOSE: This study was performed with the aim of assessing the effect of music therapy and hand massage on pain, fear and stress among 12-18 year-old adolescents treated in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial, with single-blind design. METHODS: The adolescents were divided into groups with 33 receiving hand massage, 33 receiving music therapy and 33 in the control group. Collection of data used the Wong-Baker FACES (WB-FACES) Pain Rating Scale, Children's Fear Scale (CFS) and blood cortisol levels. FINDINGS: In the study, adolescents in the music therapy group had lower mean points for WB-FACES before, during and after the procedure by a significant level compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the CFS mean points before and during the procedure were lowest in the music therapy group, while the music therapy and massage groups were determined to have lower points by a significant level after the procedure compared to the control group (p < 0.05). However, when the mean cortisol levels of adolescents before the procedure and on the 1st and 2nd day after the procedure were compared, there was no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It was determined that hand massage and music therapy were more effective than standard care at reducing pain and fear levels during blood drawing among 12-18-year-old adolescents in the PICU. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nurses may use music therapy and hand massage to manage fear and pain related to blood drawing in the PICU.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Pain; Pain Management and Control; Procedural Pain; Fear; Stress; Noninvasive Procedures; Physiological Measures; Subjective Measures; Adolescents; Hospital Setting; Intensive Care Unit (ICU); Music Medicine

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; Pain; Pain Management; Adolescents; Children; Single-Blind Method; Massage; Fear; Hand-massage; Hydrocortisone; Intensive Care Units, Pediatric; PICU

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type