Can Music Decrease Anxiety and Pain During Dental Implant Surgery? A Randomized Clinical Trial


Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons




PURPOSE: Music has proven to be an effective tool in the management of anxiety during some surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to test the effect of baroque (BM) and classical era music (CM) as a nonpharmacological therapy on the control of anxiety and pain levels among patients undergoing dental implant placement surgery. METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial of patients attending a dental clinic was conducted. Patients with psychiatric disorders were excluded. Twenty six patients of Spanish nationality requiring single-tooth dental implant were included. Each patient was assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups, which acted as an independent variable: Group I (n = 8) listened to BM; Group II (n = 10) listened to CM; and Group III (n = 8) did not listen to music and was the control group (C). The dependent variables were divided into physiological variables and psychological variables. The physiological dependent variables analysed were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation, recorded at 4 different times during surgery. The Kruskal-Wallis test compared each of these variables between the 3 experimental groups. The psychological dependent variable analyzed was the degree of anxiety, measured by the self-completed Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and Visual Analog Scale (measured before and after surgery). The Wilcoxon statistical test compared degree of anxiety before and after surgery. In all cases, the level of statistical significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 46.5 ± 10.6 (range, 24-69 years), 50% male and 50% female. Statistically significant differences in degree of anxiety before and after surgery were found in the BM (P = .027, confidence interval [CI] = 0.146-6.104; BM before = 4.25 ± 3.91 and BM after = 1.13 ± 1.45) and CM groups (P = .044, CI = 0.161-3.039; CM before = 3.10 ± 2.88 and CM after = 1.50 ± 1.43) and were not found in group C (P = .180, CI = 1.104-3.604; C before = 2.63 ± 3.62 and C after = 1.38 ± 1.99). When comparing the perceived pain after the intervention among the 3 groups (C, BM, and CM), no significant differences were observed between them (P = .319; CI = -0.58-1.96; C = 0.75 ± 1.75, BM = 1.25 ± 1.75, and CM = 1.70 ± 1.70). CONCLUSION: Listening to BM and CM reduces anxiety in patients undergoing dental implant placement surgery. Musical flow should be applied in this practice.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Pain; Procedural Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Severity; Dental Procedures; Surgery; Anxiety; Physiological Measures; Subjective Measures; Music Listening; Recorded Music Listening

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; Pain; Elderly; Dental Implants

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

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