Individual Music Therapy for Depression: Randomised Controlled Trial


British Journal of Psychiatry




BACKGROUND: Music therapy has previously been found to be effective in the treatment of depression but the studies have been methodologically insufficient and lacking in clarity about the clinical model employed. Aims To determine the efficacy of music therapy added to standard care compared with standard care only in the treatment of depression among working-age people. METHOD: Participants (n = 79) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of depression were randomised to receive individual music therapy plus standard care (20 bi-weekly sessions) or standard care only, and followed up at baseline, at 3 months (after intervention) and at 6 months. Clinical measures included depression, anxiety, general functioning, quality of life and alexithymia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN84185937. RESULTS: Participants receiving music therapy plus standard care showed greater improvement than those receiving standard care only in depression symptoms (mean difference 4.65, 95% CI 0.59 to 8.70), anxiety symptoms (1.82, 95% CI 0.09 to 3.55) and general functioning (-4.58, 95% CI -8.93 to -0.24) at 3-month follow-up. The response rate was significantly higher for the music therapy plus standard care group than for the standard care only group (odds ratio 2.96, 95% CI 1.01 to 9.02). CONCLUSIONS: Individual music therapy combined with standard care is effective for depression among working-age people with depression. The results of this study along with the previous research indicate that music therapy with its specific qualities is a valuable enhancement to established treatment practices.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Depression; Depressive Disorder; Emotional Functi; Mental Health; Mood; Mood Disorders; Mood Scales; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Psychological Outcomes; Quality of Life; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Wellness and Well-Being

Indexed Terms

Adolescents; Affective Symptoms; Anxiety; Depressive Disorder; Finland; Intention to Treat Analysis; Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care; Program Evaluation; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychotherapy, Brief; Quality of Life; Severity of Illness Index; Time Factors

Study Type

Quantitative Methods; Randomized Controlled Trial

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