Non-pharmacological Interventions for Agitation/aggressive Behaviour in Patients With Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial


Functional Neurology




Agitation/aggressive behaviour is a common behavioural and psychological symptom in people with dementia (PwD), occurring with a frequency of between 13-50.4% according to recent studies, and the rate increases as the severity of cognitive decline increases. The burden on caregivers is considerable. This trial is a randomized controlled crossover trial conducted in Greece. The following measures were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised, Geriatric Depression Scale, Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms in Dementia and Neuropsychiatric Inventory. According to the results the most effective nonpharmacological intervention for reducing agitation/aggressive behaviour in PwD was music therapy, followed by aromatherapy and massage, and finally physical exercise.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anger; Depression; Elderly; Emotional Functioning; Mood; Mood Scales; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Neurodegenerative Disorders; Psychological Outcomes; Questionnaires; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Symptom Management

Indexed Terms

Elderly; Aggression; Aromatherapy; Cross-Over Studies; Dementia; Exercise Therapy; Massage; Neuropsychological Tests; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychomotor Agitation

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type