Music to Reduce Pain and Anxiety in Cystoscopy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine




Background To assess the effectiveness and harms of music to reduce anxiety and pain in cystoscopy. Methods We searched MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE, LILACS and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to nowadays. We included clinical trials, involving the assessment of the effect of music in cystoscopy. The primary outcomes were pain and anxiety measured by any scale and the secondary outcomes were length of stay, physiological parameters (blood pressure or heart rate) and adverse effects. Cochrane Collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias. We performed the statistical analysis in R and reported information about mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 test. Results We included six studies in our qualitative and quantitative analysis. Five studies used a flexible cystoscope and the other one performed the procedure with a rigid cystoscope. Music was played during the procedure in five studies, while the other was before it. All studies compared music vs. no intervention. Almost all items were assessed as low risk of bias; however, the allocation concealment was unclear in all the studies. We found a MD of -1.33 (95% CI -2.45 to -0.21) (I2=97.2%) favoring music for pain and a MD of -8.42 (95% CI -15.02, -1.82) (I2=99.6%) was found, favoring music for anxiety. Conclusions Playing music might be an effective intervention that lowers pain and anxiety in patients who undergo cystoscopy.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Adverse Effects; Anxiety; Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Hospital Length of Stay; Hospital Setting; Hospitalized Patients; Invasive Medical Procedures; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Procedural Pain; Self-Report Measures

Indexed Terms

Anxiety Disorders; Blood Pressure; Cystoscopy; Evaluation Studies as Topic; Heart Rate; Pain; Pain Management; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; anxiety; cystoscopy; meta-analysis; pain

Study Type

Meta-Analysis; Quantitative Methods; Systematic Review

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