Effect of Preferred Music on Agitation After Traumatic Brain Injury


Western Journal of Nursing Research




Agitation is a common behavioral problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI), which threatens the safety of patients and caregivers and disrupts the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a preferred music intervention on the reduction of agitation in TBI patients and to compare the effects of preferred music with those of classical "relaxation" music. A single group, within-subjects, randomized crossover trial design was formed, consisting of 14 agitated patients with cognitive impairment after severe TBI. Patients listened to preferred music and classical "relaxation" music, with a wash-out period in between. Patients listening to the preferred music reported a significantly greater reduction in agitation compared with the effect seen during the classical "relaxation" music intervention (p = .046). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the preferred music intervention may be effective as an environmental therapeutic approach for reducing agitation after TBI.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Distress; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Neurodegenerative Disorders; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Suffering; Symptom Management

Indexed Terms

Brain Injuries; Emergence Delirium; Patient Preference; Psychomotor Agitation; agitation; familiarity; music intervention; traumatic brain injury

Study Type

Quantitative Methods; Randomized Controlled Trial

PubMed ID


Document Type