Non-pharmacological Interventions for Agitation/aggressive Behaviour in Patients With Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

T. D. Dimitriou
E. Verykouki
J. Papatriantafyllou
A. Konsta
D. Kazis
M. Tsolaki


Agitation/aggressive behaviour is a common behavioural and psychological symptom in people with dementia (PwD), occurring with a frequency of between 13-50.4% according to recent studies, and the rate increases as the severity of cognitive decline increases. The burden on caregivers is considerable. This trial is a randomized controlled crossover trial conducted in Greece. The following measures were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised, Geriatric Depression Scale, Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms in Dementia and Neuropsychiatric Inventory. According to the results the most effective nonpharmacological intervention for reducing agitation/aggressive behaviour in PwD was music therapy, followed by aromatherapy and massage, and finally physical exercise.