Music for Pain and Anxiety in Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the efficacy of music therapy (MT) on pain and anxiety in children undergoing clinical procedures. METHODS: We searched 16 electronic databases of published and unpublished studies, subject bibliographies, reference lists of relevant articles, and trials registries. Two reviewers independently screened 4559 citations and reviewed the full manuscript of 393 studies. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria: randomized controlled trial, children aged 1 month to 18 years were examined, music was used as an intervention, and the study measured pain or anxiety. Music therapy was considered active if a music therapist was involved and music was used as a medium for interactive communication. Passive music therapy was defined as listening to music without the involvement of a music therapist. RESULTS: The 19 included trials involved 1513 subjects. The methodological quality of the studies was generally poor. Overall, MT showed a significant reduction in pain and anxiety (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.55 to -0.14; 9 studies; N = 704; I(2) = 42%). When analyzed by outcome, MT significantly reduced anxiety (SMD -0.39; 95% CI, -0.76 to -0.03; 5 studies; n = 284; I(2) = 52.4%) and pain (SMD -0.39; 95% CI, -0.66 to -0.11; 5 studies; N = 465; I(2) = 49.7%). There was no evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Music is effective in reducing anxiety and pain in children undergoing medical and dental procedures. Music can be considered an adjunctive therapy in clinical situations that produce pain or anxiety.
Music and Health Institute Terms
Adolescents; Anxiety Scales; Anxiety; Children; Dental Procedures; Infants; Invasive Medical Procedures; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Music Therapy; Noninvasive Procedures; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Pain; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Recreative Music Methods; Self-Report Measures
Anxiety; Children; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Pain; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Surgical Procedures, Operative
Systematic Review; Quantitative Methods
Dentistry | Music Therapy | Pediatric Dentistry and Pedodontics | Pediatrics
Klassen, J. A.; Liang, Y.; Tjosvold, L.; Klassen, T. P.; and Hartling, L., "Music for Pain and Anxiety in Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials" (2008). Research on Music and Pain. 149.