Pain Relief Effect of Breast Feeding and Music Therapy During Heel Lance for Healthy-term Neonates in China: A Randomized Controlled Trial
OBJECTIVES: to test the effectiveness of breast feeding (BF), music therapy (MT), and combined breast feeding and music therapy (BF+MT) on pain relief in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. DESIGN: randomised controlled trial. SETTING: in the postpartum unit of one university-affiliated hospital in China from August 2013 to February 2014. PARTICIPANTS: among 288 healthy-term neonates recruited, 250 completed the trial. All neonates were undergoing heel lancing for metabolic screening, were breast fed, and had not been fed for the previous 30 minutes. INTERVENTIONS: all participants were randomly assigned into four groups - BF, MT, BF+MT, and no intervention - with 72 neonates in each group. Neonates in the control group received routine care. Neonates in the other three intervention groups received corresponding interventions five minutes before the heel lancing and throughout the whole procedure. MEASUREMENTS: Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), latency to first cry, and duration of first crying. FINDINGS: mean changes in NIPS scores from baseline over time was dependent on the interventions given. Neonates in the BF and combined BF+MT groups had significantly longer latency to first cry, shorter duration of first crying, and lower pain mean score during and one minute after heel lance, compared to the other two groups. No significant difference in pain response was found between BF groups with or without music therapy. The MT group did not achieve a significantly reduced pain response in all outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: BF could significantly reduce pain response in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. MT did not enhance the effect of pain relief of BF. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: healthy-term neonates should be breast fed to alleviate pain during heel lance. There is no need for the additional input of classical music on breast feeding in clinic to relieve procedural pain. Nurses should encourage breast feeding to relieve pain during heel lance.
Music and Health Institute Terms
Distress; Hospital Setting; Infants; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Neonatal Procedures; Newborn Infants; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Pain; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Suffering
Analgesia; Blood Specimen Collection; Breast Feeding; China; Heel; Newborn Infants; Metabolic Diseases; Pain; Pain Management; Pregnancy; Breast feeding; Heel lance; Pain relief; Randomised controlled trial
Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods
Zhu, J.; Hong-Gu, H.; Zhou, X.; Wei, H.; Gao, Y.; Ye, B.; Liu, Z.; and Chan, S. W., "Pain Relief Effect of Breast Feeding and Music Therapy During Heel Lance for Healthy-term Neonates in China: A Randomized Controlled Trial" (2014). Research on Music and Pain. 299.