Music Decreases Anxiety and Provides Sedation in Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy






OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of music on sedation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment to compare its anxiolytic effects with those of midazolam. METHODS: Ninety-eight urolithiasis patients were randomly divided into two groups. Hemodynamic parameters, including mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, and oxygen saturation, were recorded in all patients. In 50 patients (group 1), 2 mg of midazolam was administered intravenously 5 minutes before ESWL. In group 2 (n = 48), music chosen by the patients was listened to with a headset and continued during the treatment. The visual analog scale (0 to 100 mm), Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Anxiety test, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory-State Anxiety test were administered for the evaluation of pain, sedation level, and patient anxiety. RESULTS: For the hemodynamic parameters, a statistically significant decrease in mean arterial pressure was noted at the end of the ESWL procedure in group 2 and in oxygen saturation from the 10th minute to the end of the treatment in group 1. Although the visual analog scale, Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory-State Anxiety test did not show statistically significant differences, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Anxiety score was found to be lower in the music group (group 2) than in the midazolam group (group 1). CONCLUSIONS: With the anxiolytic effects of music, ESWL can be performed more effectively with the patient in a comfortable state. Listening to music by patients during the ESWL session is a feasible and convenient alternative to sedatives and anxiolytics.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Analgesic Intake; Anti-Anxiety Medication Intake; Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Heart Rate; Medication Use; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Non-invasive Procedures; Oxygen Saturation; Pain; Pain Score or Rating; Radiation Therapy; Recorded Music Listening; Respiratory Rate; Sedation; Sedative Intake; Self-Report Measures; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

Indexed Terms

Elderly; Anesthesia; Anesthetics, Intravenous; Anti-Anxiety Agents; Anxiety; Blood Pressure; Fentanyl; Heart Rate; Hemodynamics; Hypnotics and Sedatives; Lithotripsy; Midazolam; Pain; Personality Inventory; Respiratory Physiological Phenomena; Urinary Calculi

Study Type

Quasi-Experimental Study; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type