Music during flexible cystoscopy for pain and anxiety - a patient-blinded randomised control trial


BJU international




OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of music in reducing the pain and anxiety associated with flexible cystoscopy using a blinded trial design. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A patient-blinded randomised control trial of music during flexible cystoscopy was performed comparing the pain, measured by visual analogue scale (VAS), anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and vital signs of 109 patients across two public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. The purpose and hypothesis of the study was concealed from patients until after results had been collected. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences detected between the No Music and Music groups in VAS pain score (mean [SD] 2.04 [1.94] vs 2.10 [1.90], P = 0.86), change in STAI anxiety score (mean [SD] 4.87 [9.87] vs 6.8 [11.07], P = 0.33) or post-procedural vital signs (mean [SD] heart rate 74 [14] vs 72 [13] beats/min, P = 0.66; systolic blood pressure 144 [20] vs 141 [19] mmHg, P = 0.47) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Music does not appear to decrease perceived pain or anxiety when used during flexible cystoscopy. These findings may differ from the literature due to several factors, most significantly blinding of participants, but also potentially due to the ethnic composition of the study population or lack of choice of music.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Pain; Procedural Pain; Pain Management and Control; Postoperative Pain; Surgery; Anxiety; Vital Signs; Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Anxiety Scales; Self-Report Measures; Visual analog Scale (VAS); Surgical Patients; Hospital Setting; Music Medicine; Music Listening; Recorded Music Listening

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; anxiety; Pain; Pain Management; Prospective Studies; Elderly; Elderly; #Urology; cystoscopy; Cystoscopy; endoscopy; pain; Single-Blind Method

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID

PMID: 34174137

Document Type