Music during flexible cystoscopy for pain and anxiety - a patient-blinded randomised control trial
OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of music in reducing the pain and anxiety associated with flexible cystoscopy using a blinded trial design. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A patient-blinded randomised control trial of music during flexible cystoscopy was performed comparing the pain, measured by visual analogue scale (VAS), anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and vital signs of 109 patients across two public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. The purpose and hypothesis of the study was concealed from patients until after results had been collected. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences detected between the No Music and Music groups in VAS pain score (mean [SD] 2.04 [1.94] vs 2.10 [1.90], P = 0.86), change in STAI anxiety score (mean [SD] 4.87 [9.87] vs 6.8 [11.07], P = 0.33) or post-procedural vital signs (mean [SD] heart rate 74  vs 72  beats/min, P = 0.66; systolic blood pressure 144  vs 141  mmHg, P = 0.47) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Music does not appear to decrease perceived pain or anxiety when used during flexible cystoscopy. These findings may differ from the literature due to several factors, most significantly blinding of participants, but also potentially due to the ethnic composition of the study population or lack of choice of music.
Music and Health Institute Terms
Pain; Procedural Pain; Pain Management and Control; Postoperative Pain; Surgery; Anxiety; Vital Signs; Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Anxiety Scales; Self-Report Measures; Visual analog Scale (VAS); Surgical Patients; Hospital Setting; Music Medicine; Music Listening; Recorded Music Listening
Anxiety; anxiety; Pain; Pain Management; Prospective Studies; Elderly; Elderly; #Urology; cystoscopy; Cystoscopy; endoscopy; pain; Single-Blind Method
Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods
McClintock, G., Wong, E., Mancuso, P., Lalak, N., Gassner, P., Haghighi, K., Rathore, P., McAulay, L., & Jeffery, N. (2021). Music during flexible cystoscopy for pain and anxiety - a patient-blinded randomised control trial. BJU international, 128, 27-32. Retrieved from https://remix.berklee.edu/mhi-music-pain-articles/415