The Effects of Music Entrainment on Postoperative Pain Perception in Pediatric Patients

Joke Bradt


Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design with random allocation to treatment sequences, this study examined the effects of music entrainment on postoperative pain perception and emotional state in 32 pediatric patients. Patients participated in two music entrainment conditions and one control condition over 2 consecutive days. During the music entrainment condition, live music was created by the music therapist to match the child's pain. Once resonance was achieved between the pain and the music, the music progressed into music predetermined by the child as healing. During the control condition, standard care was provided. Measurements of the dependent variables were taken just prior to and immediately following each condition. The results support the effectiveness of music entrainment as a postoperative pain management technique for children and adolescents. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]