The Use of Music to Reduce Anxiety for Patients Undergoing Colposcopy: A Randomized Trial


Gynecologic Oncology




OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work was to investigate the impact of music on women's anxiety and perceived pain during colposcopy examination. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized study. Two hundred and twenty women referred for colposcopy for the first time were recruited. They were randomized to either the music or no-music group. Before colposcopy examination, each subject completed a Chinese version of the state anxiety questionnaire (STAI) and assessed the anticipated pain for colposcopy with a visual analog scale (VAS). Slow-rhythm music was played during colposcopy examination in the music group. Subjects in the no-music group were examined in the same setting without music. After colposcopy, each subject completed the STAI form again and assessed their pain during examination by the VAS. RESULTS: Women in the music group experienced significantly less pain (mean VAS 3.32 [95% CI 2.86-3.78] vs 5.03 [4.54-5.52], P<0.001) and lower anxiety (mean STAI 39.36 [95% CI 37.33-41.39] vs 44.16 [41.82-46.49], P = 0.002) during colposcopy examination than women in the no-music group. On linear regression analysis, the factors significantly affecting anxiety during colposcopy were anxiety score at enrollment, pain score during colposcopy, and whether or not the women had listened to music during the colposcopy examination. The factors significantly affecting the pain scores were whether the women had listened to music during the procedure and the final anxiety scores. CONCLUSIONS: Music is a simple, inexpensive, and easily used strategy to minimize anxiety and pain during colposcopy examination.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Hospital Setting; Hospitalized Patients; Invasive Medical Procedures; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Procedural Pain; Questionnaires; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS)

Indexed Terms

Elderly; Anxiety; Colposcopy; Pain; Pain Measurement; Prospective Studies

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type