The Effect of Music Intervention in Relation to Gender During Coronary Angiographic Procedures: A Randomized Clinical Trial


European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing




Several studies have evaluated music interventions prior and after coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but there is no clear evidence showing that music has an effect on patients during these procedures. The purpose was to investigate the effects of music on anxiety, angina, pain, relaxation, and comfort in patients during angiographic procedures and to evaluate gender differences. The study was a four-armed, prospective randomized controlled trial included 240 patients undergoing coronary angiography and/or PCI. Patients were allocated to receive relaxing music, MusiCure or standard care during the procedure. Outcome measures were; puncture pain and the discomfort related to it, angina and the discomfort related to it, anxiety, experience of the sound environment, discomfort of lying still, and the doses of anxiolytics and analgesics during the procedure. No differences were found between the music and control groups regarding any of the trial endpoints or gender-related differences. The overall rating of the sound environment and feeling of relaxation was high. In conclusion, music intervention in patients undergoing angiographic procedures was highly feasible, but not effective in this study though the delivery of music went smoothly and did not disturb the examination and patients and staff alike looked favorably on it.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Analgesic Intake; Anti-Anxiety Medication Intake; Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Cardiovascular Diseases; Cardiovascular Pain; Coronary Procedures; Discomfort; Gender Disparities; Hospital Setting; Hospitalized Patients; Invasive Medical Procedures; Medication Use; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Noninvasive Procedures; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Relaxation; Relaxation Levels; Self-Report Measures

Indexed Terms

Elderly; Analgesics; Angina Pectoris; Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary; Anxiety; Chest Pain; Coronary Disease; Patient Satisfaction; Prospective Studies; Sex Factors

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

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