Live Music Therapy as an Active Focus of Attention for Pain and Behavioral Symptoms of Distress During Pediatric Immunization


Clinical Pediatrics




A total of 100 children coming for routine immunization to pediatric outpatient department were included and were divided into experiment (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups. Experiment group received live music therapy during immunization procedure. Control group received no intervention. The Modified Behavior Pain Scale (MBPS), 10-point pain levels, and 10-point distress levels were documented by parents. Duration of crying was recorded by investigators. Pre- and postimmunization blood pressures and heart rates of parents holding the children were also measured and recorded by investigators. Independent and paired t tests were used for analysis. All 3 domains of the Modified Behavior Pain Scale and duration of crying showed significant improvement (P < .05) in the experiment group. Pain and distress levels also showed statistically nonsignificant improvement in experiment group. Blood pressure and heart rate of parents showed no difference. Music therapy could be helpful to children, parents, and health care providers by reducing discomfort of the child during pediatric immunization.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Blood Pressure; Children; Distress; Heart Rate; Immunizations; Invasive Medical Procedures; Live Music Listening; Medical Office; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Procedural Pain; Self-Report Measures; Suffering; Vital signs

Indexed Terms

Attention; Blood Pressure; Children; Heart Rate; Immunization; Pain; Stress; Vaccination; immunization; pain; pain perception; vaccination

Study Type

Quasi-Experimental Study; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type