Reduced Pain and Anxiety With Music and Noise-canceling Headphones During Shockwave Lithotripsy


Journal of Endourology




OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of music and noise-canceling headphones (NCHs) on perceived patient pain and anxiety from extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with renal calculi scheduled for SWL were prospectively enrolled. All 89 patients between the ages of 19 and 80 years were informed about this study and then randomized into three groups: Group 1 (controls), no headphones and music; Group 2, music with NCHs (patients listened to Turkish classical music with NCHs during SWL); and Group 3, music with non-NCHs (patients listened to Turkish classical music with non-NCHs during SWL). Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded before and just after the SWL session. All patient visual analog scale (VAS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were recorded just after the SWL procedure. RESULTS: There were significant differences in VAS scores among the groups (5.1, 3.6, and 4.5, respectively, p < 0.001), including between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.018). There were also significant differences in STAI-State anxiety scores among the groups (43.1, 33.5, and 38.9, respectively, p = 0.001), including between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Music therapy during SWL reduced pain and anxiety. Music therapy with NCHs was more effective for pain and anxiety reduction. To reduce pain and anxiety, nonpharmacologic therapies such as music therapy with NCHs during SWL should be investigated further and used routinely.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Noninvasive Procedures; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Procedural Pain; Recorded Music Listening; Respiratory Rate; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Vital signs

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; Kidney Calculi; Lithotripsy; Noise; Pain; Pain Management; Pain Measurement; Perception

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type