A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Music Listening on Procedural Pain, Anxiety and Comfort Levels during Cystoscopy


Psychology, Health & Medicine




This study aimed to determine the effect of music listening on procedural pain intensity, anxiety, and comfort levels in patients during cystoscopy. This study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Study participants were randomly assigned to either a control or music group. The outcome measures were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale, State Anxiety Scale, and General Comfort Questionnaire. A total of 36 patients in each group completed the study. The mean scores of pain in the music and control groups immediately after cystoscopy were 3.22 (SD, 1.72) and 5.22 (SD, 1.92), respectively. A statistically significant difference (between-group effect) was found, indicating that pain scores in the music group were significantly lower than those of the control group (group: F = 15.756, p < .001). However, no statistically significant difference was noted between the two groups regarding anxiety and comfort scores 20 min after cystoscopy (t1 = 1.156, p = .526; t1 = -0.586, p = .560, respectively). Music listening is a safe, economical, and effective method in pain management in patients undergoing cystoscopy.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Pain; Procedural Pain; Pain Management and Control; Invasive Medical Procedures; Anxiety; Discomfort; Subjective Measures; Music Medicine; Music Listening; Recorded Music Listening

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; Pain; Prospective Studies; cystoscopy; Cystoscopy; pain; Procedural Pain; comfort levels; music listening

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type