Optimal Nonpharmacological Management of Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease: Challenges and Solutions


Clinical Interventions in Aging




Many patients with Alzheimer's disease will develop agitation at later stages of the disease, which constitutes one of the most challenging and distressing aspects of dementia. Recently, nonpharmacological therapies have become increasingly popular and have been proven to be effective in managing the behavioral symptoms (including agitation) that are common in the middle or later stages of dementia. These therapies seem to be a good alternative to pharmacological treatment to avoid unpleasant side effects. We present a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on the nonpharmacological management of agitation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients aged 65 years and above. Of the 754 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. This review suggests that music therapy is optimal for the management of agitation in institutionalized patients with moderately severe and severe AD, particularly when the intervention includes individualized and interactive music. Bright light therapy has little and possibly no clinically significant effects with respect to observational ratings of agitation but decreases caregiver ratings of physical and verbal agitation. Therapeutic touch is effective for reducing physical nonaggressive behaviors but is not superior to simulated therapeutic touch or usual care for reducing physically aggressive and verbally agitated behaviors. Melissa oil aromatherapy and behavioral management techniques are not superior to placebo or pharmacological therapies for managing agitation in AD. Further research in clinical trials is required to confirm the effectiveness and long-term effects of nonpharmacological interventions for managing agitation in AD. These types of studies may lead to the development of future intervention protocols to improve the well-being and daily functioning of these patients, thereby avoiding residential care placement.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Alzheimers and Related Dement; Distress; Elderly; Mental Health; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Neurodegenerative Disorders; Psychiatric Symptoms; Recorded Music Listening; Recreative Music Methods; Suffering; Symptom Management; Wellness and Well-Being

Indexed Terms

Alzheimer Disease; Behavioral Symptoms; Disease Management; Phototherapy; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychomotor Agitation; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; behavioral and psychological symptoms; dementia; nonpharmacological

Study Type

Quantitative Methods; Systematic Review

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