Listening to Music During Cystoscopy Decreases Anxiety, Pain, and Dissatisfaction in Patients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial


Journal of Endourology




PURPOSE: To determine whether listening to music during cystoscopy decreases anxiety, pain, and dissatisfaction among patients and results in a more comfortable and better-tolerated procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy male patients who underwent rigid cystoscopy between May 2011 and December 2011 were randomized into the following: no music (Group I, n=35) or classical music during procedure (Group II, n=35). Before cystoscopy, lidocaine gel was instilled in the urethra, and both groups viewed their procedures on a video monitor. Anxiety levels were quantified according to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A visual analog scale (0-10) was used for a self-assessment of satisfaction, discomfort, and willingness among patients to repeat the cystoscopy. RESULTS: Demographic characteristics, mean age, procedure duration, and procedure indications were statistically similar between the two groups. The mean anxiety level and mean pain score of Group II were significantly lower than those of Group I (p<0.001 for both). Group II also carried a significant greater mean satisfaction score compared with Group I (p<0.001). Statistically significant differences were detected between groups in the postprocedural pulse rate and the systolic blood pressure (p=0.012 and p=0.008, respectively), whereas preprocedure pulse rate and systolic blood pressure were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Listening to music during rigid cystoscopy significantly reduces feelings of pain, discomfort, and dissatisfaction. Music can serve as a simple, inexpensive, and effective adjunct to sedation during cystoscopy. We recommend the application of music during rigid cystoscopy for clinical use.

Music and Health Institute Terms

Anxiety; Anxiety Scales; Blood Pressure; Discomfort; Invasive Medical Procedures; Music Listening; Music Medicine; Pain; Pain Management and Control; Pain Score or Rating; Patient Satisfaction; Procedural Pain; Pulse Rate; Recorded Music Listening; Self-Report Measures; Visual Analog Scale (VAS); Vital signs; Willingness to Undergo Procedure

Indexed Terms

Anxiety; Cystoscopy; Pain; Patient Satisfaction; Pilot Projects

Study Type

Randomized Controlled Trial; Quantitative Methods

PubMed ID


Document Type