The Effect of Listening to Music During Percutaneous Nephrostomy Tube Placement on Pain, Anxiety, and Success Rate of Procedure: A Randomized Prospective Study

N. Hamidi
E. Ozturk


PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of listening to music on pain, anxiety, and success of procedure during office-based percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement (PNTP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients (age >18 years) with hydronephrosis were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were prospectively randomized to undergo office-based PNTP with (Group I, n = 50) or without music (Group II, n = 50). Anxiety levels were evaluated with State Trait Anxiety Inventory. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain levels, patient's satisfaction, and willingness to undergo the procedure. We also compared success rates of procedures. RESULTS: The mean age, duration of procedure, and gender distribution were statistically similar between the two groups. The mean postprocedural heart rates and systolic blood pressures in Group I patients were significantly lower than Group II patients (p = 0.01 and p = 0.028, respectively), whereas preprocedural pulse rate and systolic blood pressure were similar. The mean anxiety level and mean pain score of Group I were significantly lower than those of Group II (p = 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively). Group I also carried a significant greater mean satisfaction score and willingness to undergo repeat procedure compared with Group II (p < 0.001 for both). Success rate of nephrostomy tube placement in Group I was significantly higher compared with Group II (92% vs 66%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The present randomized prospective study demonstrates that listening to music during office-based PNTP decreases anxiety or pain and increases success rate of procedure. As an alternative to sedation or general anesthesia, music is easily accessible without side effect and cost.